Naturalism and Physicalism
Naturalism is the doctrine that all of reality is natural and can be understood solely in scientific terms, without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations.
Physicalism is a doctrine within naturalism that everything is physical, and matter and energy are the only realities. Physicalism posits that all phenomena can be explained using the principles of physics. Theological arguments against physicalism arise from widespread belief in the supernatural, immaterial gods, creationism, and life after death.
Some psychological arguments arise from outdated ideas of mind-body dualism, which reject the neurochemical basis of thinking, feeling, sensations, and other brain functions. However, the neurophysiological basis of psychology is today almost universally accepted.